See what the science says

Marijuana has sometimes been feared for its intoxicating effects, but modern science as well as human and animal medicine differentiate at least two phytochemicals in hemp plants. Tetrahydrocannabiol (THC) is the specific agent that causes the “high” that has made hemp illegal for sale and use in the United States and many other countries.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is non-intoxicating and is believed to have vast medical applications for treating pain, anxiety, seizures, stress, insomnia and myriad serious conditions. Epidiolex, the first FDA-approved medicine containing CBD in the United States, is used to treat two rare forms of “drug resistant” seizure disorder in patients as young as 2 years old. This is not only a breakthrough for CBD products, but underscores the growing importance of natural medicine in a modern world.

Through our innovative product, Black Rock strives to contribute to the growing body of CBD research and product development. We are also grateful to researchers around the world whose critical work ensures that science will triumph over historic biases that have prevented CBD from gaining more widespread support from regulators, legislators and the pharmaceutical industry.

Cannabidiol Critical Report – June 2018

World Health Organization (WHO)
CBD is generally well tolerated with a good safety profile. … To date, there is no evidence of recreational use of CBD or any public health-related problems associated with the use of pure CBD.

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Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Usage and co-prescription with other potentially interacting drugs in elderly: A cross-sectional study

Category: Side Effects

Biochemical Pharmacology

NSAIDS such as aspirin and acetaminophen are commonly used to treat chronic pain common in the elderly despite increasing evidence that combination use with other medications frequently prescribed for geriatric conditions and long-term use of the NSAID itself pose potentially serious and sometimes fatal risks.

Globally, usage of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in elderly with chronic pain has been reported as frequent. Though NSAIDs are fundamental in maintaining their quality of life, the risk of polypharmacy, drug interactions and adverse effects is of paramount importance as the elderly usually require multiple medications for their co-morbidities. If prescriptions are not appropriately monitored and managed, they are likely to expose patients to serious drug interactions and potentially fatal adverse effects.

Read more

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and organ damage: A current perspective

Category: Side Effects

Biochemical Pharmacology

Long considered wonder drugs, available over the counter and very inexpensively worldwide, NSAIDs such as aspirin, acetaminophen and naproxen are to treat everything from headaches to sprained ankles and heart disease. However, there’s increasing evidence of serious health risks associated with long-term use and in combination use with other prescription and OTC medications. This survey of clinical studies conducted in leading institutions around the world points to significant clinical evidence of a host of serious impairment of major organ functionality including dementia, stroke and heart failure that should lead to greater efforts by regulators and practitioners to educate and caution consumers.

… data from multiple placebo-controlled trials and meta-analyses studies alarmingly signify the adverse effects of NSAIDs in gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, hepatic, renal, cerebral and pulmonary complications.

Read more

The “Entourage Effect”: Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders

Category: The Entourage Effect

Current Pharmacology Reports & United States National Library of Medicine

The “entourage effect” of plant-derived cannabinoids is widely debated. Detractors call it folklore unsupported by science. Advocates point out the well-known combination effects of agents such as vitamin D + calcium or glucosamine + chondroitin sulfate as supporting the theory of complex interactions between multiple exogenous (external to the body) and endogenous (internal to the body) agents.

However, ‘cannabis’ is not a single compound product but is known for its complicated molecular profile, producing a plethora of phytocannabinoids alongside a vast array of terpenes. Thus, the “entourage effect” is the suggested positive contribution derived from the addition of terpenes to cannabinoids.

Read more

Odour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice

Category: Napreva Ingredients

Science Republic

Various natural extracts or their chemical components have long been examined for pain relief. In terms of folk remedies, several odorous compounds extracted from plants are believed to have analgesic effects. For example, linalool, one of the major odorous components of lavender extracts, attenuates pain responses via subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, intrathecal , or oral administration .

Read more

Oral Transmucosal Cannabidiol Oil Formulation as Part of a Multimodal Analgesic Regimen: Effects on Pain Relief and Quality of Life Improvement in Dogs Affected by Spontaneous Osteoarthritis

Category: Dogs

Animals

An Italian study similar to one conducted at Cornel University of Veterinary Medicine found that CBD oil produced a significant reduction in chronic pain related to osteoarthritis.

Chronic pain in dogs is being increasingly recognised as a significant problem, and finding successful treatments against canine osteoarthritis-related pain is challenging.

To the authors’ knowledge, the present study is the first to evaluate the clinical effects of the OTM administration of CBD oil in dogs. A significant reduction in perceiving pain and a significant increase in quality of life was achieved in dogs affected by spontaneous OA receiving OTM CBD oil (2 mg kg−1 every 12 h), in addition to a multimodal analgesic regimen, compared with findings in dogs of the control group

Read more

Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses both allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain

Category: CBD for Pain

Pain

In a series of controlled animal studies, CBD was found to have significant impact in controlling both chronic neuropathic pain (resulting from nerve damage) and frequently associated depression and anxiety. Because of its lack of notable side effects, researchers concluded that CBD has potentially significant therapeutic benefits for humans in treating chronic pain.

The primary noneuphorizing and nonaddictive compound of cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), has recently been shown to possess considerable therapeutic potential for treating a wide range of disorders such as chronic pain, nausea, epilepsy, psychosis, and anxiety.

Read more

Effects of Cannabinoid Administration for Pain: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression

Category: CBD for Pain

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology

Chronic pain is an ever-growing concern in the United States. There is a rising economic burden – currently estimated to be between $560 billion and $635 billion annually – that stems from pain-related costs to patients, patient-care providers, healthcare systems, and poor treatment outcomes among clinical pain populations.

While a survey of numerous lab and clinical studies of cannabinoid use in pain treatment yielded differing results, the study concludes “These outcomes suggest that cannabinoid-based pharmacotherapies may serve as effective replacement/adjunctive options regarding pain, however, additional research is warranted.”

Read more

Medicinal Plants Recommended by the World Health Organization: DNA Barcode Identification Associated with Chemical Analyses Guarantees Their Quality

Category: Plants in Medicine

The Public Library of Science

it is estimated that approximately 25% of modern drugs and as many as 60% of antitumor drugs [2] are derived from natural products. According to the WHO, between 65% and 80% of the populations of developing countries currently use medicinal plants as remedies. The development of new products from natural sources is also encouraged because it is estimated that of the 300,000 plant species that exist in the world, only 15% have been evaluated to determine their pharmacological potential.

Read more

Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs

Category: Featured Stories

Cornell University School of Veterinary Medicine

In a small but important veterinary trial, CBD oil was found to be effective and safe for treating pain in dogs. Clinically, canine brief pain inventory and Hudson activity scores showed a significant decrease in pain and increase in activity (p < 0.01) with CBD oil. Veterinary assessment showed decreased pain during CBD treatment (p < 0.02).

Read more

Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials

Category: Featured Stories

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

While much is made of the lack of scientific or clinical evidence that CBD has any therapeutic effect on any condition, a study of 15 randomized, controlled clinical trials in the use of CBD for treating a wide range of non-cancer pains suggests otherwise.

Most critically, this study, the World Health Organization 2018 critical review and numerous studies around the world agree that there are no serious, adverse effects from using CBD.

Chronic non-cancer pain conditions included neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, and mixed chronic pain. Overall the quality of trials was excellent. Fifteen of the eighteen trials that met the inclusion criteria demonstrated a significant analgesic effect of cannabinoid as compared with placebo and several reported significant improvements in sleep. There were no serious adverse effects.

Read more

Acetaminophen Relieves Inflammatory Pain through CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors in the Rostral Ventromedial Medulla

Category: Featured Stories

The Journal of Neuroscience

Perhaps the most important point made is that one of the most widely used over-the-counter pain relievers isn’t well understood. Moreover, it appears that how it interacts with the body’s endocannabinoid system is key to its effectiveness in treating pain. While it might seem rational to conclude that actual cannabinoids like CBD would work even better, future studies will build collective intelligence.

“Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug with only incompletely understood mechanisms of action.”

While studies like this are in very early stages, it concludes that “Our results indicate that the cannabinoid system contributes not only to acetaminophen analgesia against acute pain but also against inflammatory pain.”

Read more

A Balanced Approach for Cannabidiol Use in Chronic Pain

Category: Featured Stories

Frontiers in Pharmacology

Since the early 2000s, clinical trials involving CBD for the treatment of chronic pain have shown effects ranging from placebo-equivalent to highly effective; many of these studies have been well-designed randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled. In a mixed cohort of patients suffering from intractable pain due to multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, brachial plexus injury, and limb amputation, CBD treatment significantly reduced pain on a visual analog scale (Wade et al., 2003). 

Read more

Cannabidiol Critical Report – June 2018

Category: Featured Stories

World Health Organization (WHO)

CBD is generally well tolerated with a good safety profile. … To date, there is no evidence of recreational use of CBD or any public health-related problems associated with the use of pure CBD.

Read more

Article library

Featured Stories

Cannabidiol Critical Report – June 2018

World Health Organization (WHO)

CBD is generally well tolerated with a good safety profile. … To date, there is no evidence of recreational use of CBD or any public health-related problems associated with the use of pure CBD.
A Balanced Approach for Cannabidiol Use in Chronic Pain

Frontiers in Pharmacology

Since the early 2000s, clinical trials involving CBD for the treatment of chronic pain have shown effects ranging from placebo-equivalent to highly effective; many of these studies have been well-designed randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled. In a mixed cohort of patients suffering from intractable pain due to multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, brachial plexus injury, and limb amputation, CBD treatment significantly reduced pain on a visual analog scale (Wade et al., 2003).
Acetaminophen Relieves Inflammatory Pain through CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors in the Rostral Ventromedial Medulla

The Journal of Neuroscience

Perhaps the most important point made is that one of the most widely used over-the-counter pain relievers isn’t well understood. Moreover, it appears that how it interacts with the body’s endocannabinoid system is key to its effectiveness in treating pain. While it might seem rational to conclude that actual cannabinoids like CBD would work even better, future studies will build collective intelligence.
“Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug with only incompletely understood mechanisms of action.”
While studies like this are in very early stages, it concludes that “Our results indicate that the cannabinoid system contributes not only to acetaminophen analgesia against acute pain but also against inflammatory pain.”
Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

While much is made of the lack of scientific or clinical evidence that CBD has any therapeutic effect on any condition, a study of 15 randomized, controlled clinical trials in the use of CBD for treating a wide range of non-cancer pains suggests otherwise.
Most critically, this study, the World Health Organization 2018 critical review and numerous studies around the world agree that there are no serious, adverse effects from using CBD.
Chronic non-cancer pain conditions included neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, and mixed chronic pain. Overall the quality of trials was excellent. Fifteen of the eighteen trials that met the inclusion criteria demonstrated a significant analgesic effect of cannabinoid as compared with placebo and several reported significant improvements in sleep. There were no serious adverse effects.
Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs

Cornell University School of Veterinary Medicine

In a small but important veterinary trial, CBD oil was found to be effective and safe for treating pain in dogs. Clinically, canine brief pain inventory and Hudson activity scores showed a significant decrease in pain and increase in activity (p < 0.01) with CBD oil. Veterinary assessment showed decreased pain during CBD treatment (p < 0.02).

Plants in Medicine

Medicinal Plants Recommended by the World Health Organization: DNA Barcode Identification Associated with Chemical Analyses Guarantees Their Quality

The Public Library of Science

It is estimated that approximately 25% of modern drugs and as many as 60% of antitumor drugs [2] are derived from natural products. According to the WHO, between 65% and 80% of the populations of developing countries currently use medicinal plants as remedies. The development of new products from natural sources is also encouraged because it is estimated that of the 300,000 plant species that exist in the world, only 15% have been evaluated to determine their pharmacological potential.

CBD for Pain

Effects of Cannabinoid Administration for Pain: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology

Chronic pain is an ever-growing concern in the United States. There is a rising economic burden – currently estimated to be between $560 billion and $635 billion annually – that stems from pain-related costs to patients, patient-care providers, healthcare systems, and poor treatment outcomes among clinical pain populations. While a survey of numerous lab and clinical studies of cannabinoid use in pain treatment yielded differing results, the study concludes “These outcomes suggest that cannabinoid-based pharmacotherapies may serve as effective replacement/adjunctive options regarding pain, however, additional research is warranted.”
Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses both allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain

PAIN

In a series of controlled animal studies, CBD was found to have significant impact in controlling both chronic neuropathic pain (resulting from nerve damage) and frequently associated depression and anxiety. Because of its lack of notable side effects, researchers concluded that CBD has potentially significant therapeutic benefits for humans in treating chronic pain.
The primary noneuphorizing and nonaddictive compound of cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), has recently been shown to possess considerable therapeutic potential for treating a wide range of disorders such as chronic pain, nausea, epilepsy, psychosis, and anxiety.

Dogs

Oral Transmucosal Cannabidiol Oil Formulation as Part of a Multimodal Analgesic Regimen: Effects on Pain Relief and Quality of Life Improvement in Dogs Affected by Spontaneous Osteoarthritis

Animals

An Italian study similar to one conducted at Cornel University of Veterinary Medicine found that CBD oil produced a significant reduction in chronic pain related to osteoarthritis.
Chronic pain in dogs is being increasingly recognised as a significant problem, and finding successful treatments against canine osteoarthritis-related pain is challenging.
To the authors’ knowledge, the present study is the first to evaluate the clinical effects of the OTM administration of CBD oil in dogs. A significant reduction in perceiving pain and a significant increase in quality of life was achieved in dogs affected by spontaneous OA receiving OTM CBD oil (2 mg kg−1 every 12 h), in addition to a multimodal analgesic regimen, compared with findings in dogs of the control group

Nápreva

Odour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice

Science Republic

Various natural extracts or their chemical components have long been examined for pain relief. In terms of folk remedies, several odorous compounds extracted from plants are believed to have analgesic effects. For example, linalool, one of the major odorous components of lavender extracts, attenuates pain responses via subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, intrathecal , or oral administration .

The Entourage Effect

The “Entourage Effect”: Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders

Current Pharmacology Reports
United States National Library of Medicine

The “entourage effect” of plant-derived cannabinoids is widely debated. Detractors call it folklore unsupported by science. Advocates point out the well-known combination effects of agents such as vitamin D + calcium or glucosamine + chondroitin sulfate as supporting the theory of complex interactions between multiple exogenous (external to the body) and endogenous (internal to the body) agents.
However, ‘cannabis’ is not a single compound product but is known for its complicated molecular profile, producing a plethora of phytocannabinoids alongside a vast array of terpenes. Thus, the “entourage effect” is the suggested positive contribution derived from the addition of terpenes to cannabinoids.

Side Effects

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Usage and co-prescription with other potentially interacting drugs in elderly: A cross-sectional study

Biochemical Pharmacology

NSAIDS such as aspirin and acetaminophen are commonly used to treat chronic pain common in the elderly despite increasing evidence that combination use with other medications frequently prescribed for geriatric conditions and long-term use of the NSAID itself pose potentially serious and sometimes fatal risks.
Globally, usage of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in elderly with chronic pain has been reported as frequent. Though NSAIDs are fundamental in maintaining their quality of life, the risk of polypharmacy, drug interactions and adverse effects is of paramount importance as the elderly usually require multiple medications for their co-morbidities. If prescriptions are not appropriately monitored and managed, they are likely to expose patients to serious drug interactions and potentially fatal adverse effects.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and organ damage: A current perspective

Biochemical Pharmacology

Long considered wonder drugs, available over the counter and very inexpensively worldwide, NSAIDs such as aspirin, acetaminophen and naproxen are to treat everything from headaches to sprained ankles and heart disease. However, there’s increasing evidence of serious health risks associated with long-term use and in combination use with other prescription and OTC medications. This survey of clinical studies conducted in leading institutions around the world points to significant clinical evidence of a host of serious impairment of major organ functionality including dementia, stroke and heart failure that should lead to greater efforts by regulators and practitioners to educate and caution consumers.
… data from multiple placebo-controlled trials and meta-analyses studies alarmingly signify the adverse effects of NSAIDs in gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, hepatic, renal, cerebral and pulmonary complications.

Pain management

A Balanced Approach for Cannabidiol Use in Chronic Pain
Frontiers in Pharmacology
Since the early 2000s, clinical trials involving CBD for the treatment of chronic pain have shown effects ranging from placebo-equivalent to highly effective; many of these studies have been well-designed randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled. In a mixed cohort of patients suffering from intractable pain due to multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, brachial plexus injury, and limb amputation, CBD treatment significantly reduced pain on a visual analog scale (Wade et al., 2003).
Acetaminophen Relieves Inflammatory Pain through CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors in the Rostral Ventromedial Medulla
Acetaminophen Relieves Inflammatory Pain through CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors in the Rostral Ventromedial Medulla
Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug with only incompletely understood mechanisms of action.
Our results indicate that the cannabinoid system contributes not only to acetaminophen analgesia against acute pain but also against inflammatory pain.
Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Chronic non-cancer pain conditions included neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, and mixed chronic pain. Overall the quality of trials was excellent. Fifteen of the eighteen trials that met the inclusion criteria demonstrated a significant analgesic effect of cannabinoid as compared with placebo and several reported significant improvements in sleep. There were no serious adverse effects.

CBD for dogs

Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs

Frontiers in Veterinary Medicine
In a small but important veterinary trial, CBD oil was found to be effective and safe for treating pain in dogs. Clinically, canine brief pain inventory and Hudson activity scores showed a significant decrease in pain and increase in activity (p < 0.01) with CBD oil. Veterinary assessment showed decreased pain during CBD treatment (p < 0.02).

Safety

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Purus felis vel scelerisque commodo posuere porttitor lacus blandit nec. Ac amet pellentesque ullamcorper ut est vestibulum. Dignissim vitae interdum turpis ut. Purus tortor, blandit lorem lobortis sed volutpat quis aliquet. Vitae elementum, vel consectetur dignissim tempus urna vitae ornare. Diam pulvinar vestibulum ullamcorper augue. Cursus risus sed enim, id tempus.

Endocannabinoid system

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Lacinia lacus lobortis rutrum semper odio ut.
Purus felis vel scelerisque commodo posuere porttitor lacus blandit nec. Ac amet pellentesque ullamcorper ut est vestibulum. Dignissim vitae interdum turpis ut. Purus tortor, blandit lorem lobortis sed volutpat quis aliquet. Vitae elementum, vel consectetur dignissim tempus urna vitae ornare. Diam pulvinar vestibulum ullamcorper augue. Cursus risus sed enim, id tempus.

What you need to know about CBD

CBD and THC are both from hemp plants. CBD does not make you “high” and is legal in all 50 states.

CBD vs. THC

Hemp plants contain hundreds of organic compounds including the cannabinoids called THC and CBD. Current science clearly distinguishes between THC, which is still regulated, and CBD which has no psychoactive or intoxicating effects.
Historically, regulators and law enforcement associated tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with more dangerous plant-based drugs because of THC’s psychoactive properties. But today, regulators and law makers are coming to accept new scientific evidence that marijuana doesn’t possess the negative side effects of plant-based drugs such as codeine and morphine.
You won’t get addicted to Nápreva like many drugs used to treat pain or help you sleep. It doesn’t have any known, negative side effects like over-the-counter NSAIDs that can cause stomach, kidney and liver disease. Because it contains a particularly pure form of CBD called an isolate, you won’t fail a drug test at work.

Hemp: cultivated for almost 3,000 years

Hemp is one of the oldest crops cultivated by man for a wide range of uses – from making rope and cloth to brewing medicinal teas. Early texts record the first uses of hemp health remedies around 300 A.D. in ancient China where naturopathy is still a highly respected compliment to modern medicine.
New methods for extracting organic compounds from plants now enable making CBD products that contain almost no intoxicating agents. While broad spectrum and full spectrum CBD contain trace amounts of THC, the industrial hemp CBD isolate used in Nápreva contains so little, it’s considered THC free.
Ancient Chinese grew hemp for medicine, cloth and many uses over 3,000 years ago.
Many of the first references to hemp - Emperor Fu Xi
Napreva is a dietary supplement that may help with pain, insomnia, stress and other health issues.

Nápreva is not a drug

Nápreva is a dietary supplement like vitamins, echinacea, elderberry and a wide range of health products used by millions of people every day. Like all of the highest-quality products, Nápreva is made in an FDA registered facility and processed under strict sanitation and safety standards essential for a consumable product.

Like all other CBD products on the market today except for one, a prescription drug called Epidiolex used to treat Lennox-Gastaut and Dravet syndromes, two rare and severe forms of seizure disorder, Nápreva is not FDA approved for use as medicine, so we can’t make claims about its effectiveness. But we can say that hundreds of customers who’ve used Nápreva say they feel better just a few minutes after their first serving.

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